Coronavirus or Covid-19, these names created destruction in our world in just a few days and it cannot be described in a just few words.
Before November-19, we feared World War-3 only. We never even dreamed that a small virus of the Corona Family would shut the whole world in the houses.
The roads that did not have a place to walk are so deserted today as if built on another planet. So what is it that makes it so dangerous?
Difference between corona viruses, COVID-19 and SARS CoV-2
We know the name of coronaviruses and COVID-19 only and not understand what is the main difference between.
This viral infection called COVID-19 and the SARS CoV-2 viruses are the causes of this infection.
It belongs to the family of Coronaviruses. It named for crown-like spikes on their surfaces.
It is a contagious viral infection that attacks primarily our throat and lungs.
What actually happens in your body when you contract the coronavirus and How to it works?
The coronavirus must infected living cells in order to reproduce.
When an infected person talks, coughs or sneezes, droplets carrying the virus may land in your mouth or nose.
Then the coronavirus moves into our lungs. Once inside our body, the virus comes into contact with other cells in our throat, nose, or lungs.
The virus has a genetic material that contains the information to make more copies of itself in his center.
A protein shell provides a hard protective enclosure for the genetic material as the virus travels between the people it infects.
Spikes of protein molecules create an outer envelope that allows the virus to infect cells by merging with the cell’s outer membrane.
The new coronavirus uses their spikes like a key to get inside a cell in your body, which is the same as the old typical influenza virus.
In the body cell, it takes over its internal machinery and repurposing it to build the components of new viruses.
One spike on the virus inserts into a receptor molecule on our healthy body cell membrane the same as a key in a lock. This action allows the virus to get inside our body cells.
There is the main difference between the typical old flu virus and new coronavirus that typical old flu virus would travel inside a sack made from our body cell membrane to cell’s nucleus that where our cell houses all its genetic material.
But the coronavirus doesn’t need to enter our body cell nucleus and It can directly access other parts of the host cell, called Ribosomes.
Ribosomes use genetic information from the virus to make viral proteins, such as the spikes on the virus’s surface.
A packaging structure in our cell carries the spikes in vesicles. The spikes merge with our outer cell’s layer, the cell membrane, and all the parts needed to create a new virus gather just beneath our cell membrane.
Then a new virus begins to butt off from the cell’s membrane.
Lung Infection in Coronavirus
To understand the mechanism of virus infection we’ll have to check into our lungs.
Our both lung has separate sections, called lobes.
Normally, when we breathe, air moves freely through our trachea, or windpipe, then through large tubes, called bronchi, through smaller tubes, called bronchioles, and finally into tiny sacs, called alveoli.
Our lung airways and alveoli are flexible and springy. When we breathe in, each air sac inflates like a small balloon.
And when we exhale, the sacs deflate. Many small blood vessels, called capillaries, surround our alveoli.
Oxygen from the air we breathe passes into our capillaries, and then carbon dioxide (CO2) from our body passes out of our capillaries into our alveoli so that our lungs can get rid of it when we exhale.
Our airways catch most germs in the mucus that lines our trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles.
In a healthy human body, hair-like cilia lining the tubes constantly push the mucus and germs out of our airways, where we may expel them by coughing.
Normally, our immune system cells can attack viruses and germs which have remained in our mucus and cilia and enter our alveoli.
How to Lung Infection in Coronavirus
But the coronavirus infection is weakened of our immune system and the virus can overwhelm our immune cells.
Now our bronchioles and alveoli become inflammation and multiplying viruses attacks on it. The inflammation can cause our alveoli of the lung to fill with fluid and making it difficult for our body to get the oxygen it needs.
It could develop lobar pneumonia, where one lobe of your lungs is affected, or it also could have bronchopneumonia that affects many areas of both lungs.
Pneumonia may cause difficulty breathing chest pain, coughing fever and chills confusion, headache muscle pain, and fatigue. It can also lead to more serious complications like a respiratory failure.
When our breathing becomes so difficult that we need a machine called a ventilator to help our breath.
Whether we would develop these symptoms, depends on a lot of factors, such as our age and whether we already have an existing condition.
While all this all sounds scary, the push to develop a coronavirus vaccine is moving at high speed.
How to work a vaccine on the virus?
Many Studies of coronaviruses lead most researchers to assume that patients who have recovered from a SARS-CoV-2 infection could be protected from reinfection for a time period.
But that assumption needs to be backed by empirical evidence and some studies suggest otherwise. There are several different approaches for a potential vaccine against the coronavirus.
The basic idea is that you would get a shot that contains faint versions of the virus. The vaccine would expose your body to the virus that is too weak to cause infection but just strong enough to stimulate an immune response.
Within a few weeks, cells in your immune system would make markers called antibodies, which would be specific for only the coronavirus or specifically its spike protein.
Antibodies then attach to the virus and prevent it from attaching to your cells. Your immune system then responds to signals from the antibodies by consuming and destroying the clumps of viruses.
If you then catch the real virus at a later stage, your body would recognize and destroy it. In other words, your immune system is now primed. Collecting evidence on whether this will be possible, safe and effective is part of what’s taking researchers so long to develop a vaccine.
When will a COVID-19 vaccine be ready?
It is a race against time to develop a vaccine amid a pandemic. Each step in vaccine development usually takes months if not years.
An Ebola vaccine broke records by being ready in five years.
The hope here is to develop one for the new coronavirus in a record-breaking 12 to 18 months.
While all this will take time, stay home if you can to protect the most vulnerable and don’t forget to wash your hands for at least 20 seconds and as often as possible.